Within the study «Doing Business» procedural requirements are discussed in respect of export and import of standard goods and cargo during their delivery by water transport. All formal procedures for cargo export and import indicating time and costs of the procedure are taken into account. However, time and costs associated with maritime transport are not taken into consideration. All the documents necessary for the trading company to export or import goods across the national borders are taken into consideration. With respect to cargo export the procedures from packaging products in the warehouse to their departure from the port of departure are essential. For countries that do not have an access to the sea the procedures effective at the internal boundary point are important, as the port is in the country with transition economy.
With respect to cargo import the procedures are accounted from the moment of their arrival at the destination port to the cargo delivery to the warehouse. The payment is carried out by a letter of credit, and terms, expenses and documents necessary either for the letter of credit or the notification about it are taken into account. Rating on the ease of doing international trade is a simple average of the percentile rankings pursuant to the indicators of this category.
Local freight forwarders, shipping companies, customs agents, port officials and banks provide information on required documents, cost and time of each procedure. To ensure the comparability of data across various countries some assumptions regarding the companies and the goods are used.
The project «Doing Business» enables to evaluate normative legal acts regulating entrepreneurial activity objectively and ensure their enforcement in 189 countries, as well as in separate cities at the subnational and regional levels.
The project «Doing Business», the implementation of which was launched in 2002, is devoted to the activity of national small and
Extensive quantitative data are collected and analyzed within the limits of the study to compare the regulatory environment for entrepreneurship across countries and in the dynamic. Thus, the project «Doing Business» encourages countries to better regulation, provides measurable guidelines to reform and it serves as a resource for scientists, journalists, researches from a private sector and others persons interested in the business climate in each country.
|REGION||Europe and Central Asia|
|INCOME LEVEL||Above-average income|
|POPULATION||16 797 459|
|GROSS NATIONAL INCOME PER
CAPITA (IN US DOLLARS $)
|CITY UNDER STUDY||Almaty|
|Indicator||Kazakhstan||Europe and Central Asia||OECD|
|Documents for export (number)||10||7||4|
|Time for export (days)||81||25||11|
|Cost of export (US$ per container)||4 885||2 109||1 070|
|Documents for import (number)||12||8||4|
|Time for import (days)||69||26||10|
|Cost of import (US$ per container)||4 865||2 339||1090|
All the documents required for each export and import consignment are taken into account. A new contract is expected to be developed for each consignment, and that it shall be agreed and signed by both parties. The documents necessary for coordination with relevant agencies including with state ministries, customs and port authorities, as well as control bodies are taken into account.
For the countries that do not have an access to the sea, the documents required by the authorities in the country with transition economy are also accounted. Since the payment has been made by a letter of credit, all the documents required by banks to issue or ensure a letters of credit are also taken into consideration.
The documents requested in the course of customs control, but valid for a year or more than a year and do not require renewal in the processing of each consignment (for instance, an annual certificate of tax payment) are not taken into account.
Documents that are required solely for the purpose of privileges are no longer taken into account, for instance, a certificate of origin, if it is used to have a claim on for a preferential tariff rate under the trade agreements. However, the exporter is always expected to obtain a certificate of origin for their trading partner. Thus, time and cost of obtaining such a certificate are included in the total amount of time and costs for export.
Time spent on export and import is stated in calendar days. Calculation of time starts from the beginning of the procedure and finishes at the moment of its completion. If the time of the procedure is permitted to be hastened for an additional fee, and this opportunity is available to all trading companies, the procedure may be hastened provided that it is legal.
Hastened procedures applicable only for the companies located in the zones of goods production for export or in respect of certain companies accredited in accordance with the programmes by authorized business entities are not taken into account since they are not available to all trading companies. The time associated with maritime transportation is taken into account. The exporter and the importer are expected to act without any delay and should aim to complete all the remaining procedures as soon as possible. The procedures that can be run in parallel are treated as simultaneous. It is assumed that documentation preparation, transportation within the country, customs clearance and other formalities, as well as loading and unloading at ports and terminals require at least one day for each operation and cannot be carried out simultaneously.
Costs include fees charged for a 20-foot container in U.S. dollars. All fees associated with the passage of the procedures for cargo export or import are taken into account. These include costs for documents execution, administrative fees for customs clearance and inspection, customs brokers’ fees, costs associated with the port and inland transportation expenses. Customs tariffs and duties relating to maritime transport are not taken into account except for official costs.
Furthermore, the project “Doing Business” offers detailed subnational reports which provide a comprehensive analysis of business regulation and reforms in different cities and regions of the country. These reports contain data on the easiness of running business, rating of each region and the recommended reforms in order to improve estimation in each of the thematic categories, which include indicators compiled. Participating in the study, cities can compare their existing business regulations with other cities in the country or region, as well as with the cities of 189 countries included in the rating of “Doing Business”.
The first report “Doing Business” published in 2003 covered 5 indicator sets involving 133 countries. This year’s report covers 11 indicator sets involving 189 countries. The project “Doing Business” is being finalized with comments from governmental representatives, scientists, practitioners and reviewers. Originally, a specific purpose of the project remains the same: to provide an objective basis to understand and improve legal and business regulation all over the world.